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covenant" was "shed for many for the forgiveness of sins" Matthew 26:28, 1 Corinthians 11:25.

Jesus was the only qualified mediator of the new covenant because, as the true Son of God and the sinless Son of Man, his was the only blood that could be shed for the forgiveness of sins.

Jesus was the highest ranking authority whom God the Father could send. None from among the ranks of His creatures - men or angels - could compare with Jesus, His Son. Though subjected to profound humiliation, he was raised from the dead, and ascended into heaven where he sits at His Father’s right hand in the place of supreme authority (Philippians 2:5-11). When this mediator initiates a covenant, that is, a peace treaty from God, it is in our best interests to pay attention!

Jesus made a rather cryptic announcement to his disciples when he said, "I have other sheep who are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they shall hear my voice, and they shall become one flock with one Shepherd" (John 10:16). These mysterious “other sheep” are explained by the Apostle Paul in his letter to the Galatians believers "There is neither Jew nor Greek... you are all one in Christ Jesus. And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's seed and heirs according to the promise" (Galatians 3:28-29).

So while the new covenant promise of Jeremiah 31 employs the language of “the house of Israel and the House of Judah” we understand it to mean the “true Israel” of Galatians 6:16. The people of God are no longer a fleshly Israel or Judah, made up of Abraham and Jacob's physical descendants. No, the children of Abraham are those who share the patriarch’s faith in God’s promises of a coming redeemer (Romans 4:14-16). We know that redeemer to be Jesus of Nazareth. The holy nation is now a spiritual and universal kingdom made up of all believers in Jesus Christ - whether Jew or Gentile.

In his remarks at the Last Supper, recorded in the synoptic gospels, it is extremely important to note that that Jesus connects the "new" covenant with His "blood." We can’t help but be reminded of Exodus 24:7, where after the people promise to obey God’s commands, "Moses took the blood (half of which had already been sprinkled on the altar), and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant which Yahweh hath made with you concerning all these words" (Exodus 24:8).

The blood was from animals sacrificed as burnt offerings and peace offerings. Half of the blood was sprinkled on the altar - designating it as a sacrifice offered to God. The other half was sprinkled on the people, signifying its virtuous application in their behalf.

By referring to His blood in this manner, Jesus clearly and unmistakably pointed to his sacrificial death as the means to bring his people into a new covenant relationship with God. The ultimate sacrifice of the “Lamb of God” (as John the Baptist referred to Jesus) is suitable and pleasing to God. Its power and virtue is vicariously applied to believers, so that all the blessings of the new covenant are secured for, and guaranteed to them.

The Parties. They are God the Father, Jesus the Son, and His elect.

The Promise. The full rights and privileges as sons of God are mercifully granted to the elect, including total remission of sin and the perfect righteousness of Christ, all are credited to them. In addition, the Holy Spirit of God seals and empowers his children, enabling them to die more and more to sin, and live more and more unto righteousness. He promises eternal life and the assurance of His presence forever.

The Proviso. Repentance of sin and the personal faith and reception of Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord by faith alone is the condition upon which one is made a child of God (John 1:12).

The Penalty. The failure to recognize oneself as a sinner against God, and refusal to receive the marvelous gift of His Son results in eternal condemnation (John 3:16-18).

A discussion on these various covenants has taken us on a journey from creation to our own day and for this reason it has been said that “this unfolding history of redemption is what we often mean when we talk about covenant.”
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Presbyterian Doctrine

The Presbyterian Church gives special attention to the covenants

Behold the days are coming says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, not like the covenant I made with their fathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the Lord. But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel: after those days, says the Lord, I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts, and I will be their God and they shall be my people... They shall all know me from the least to the greatest says the Lord, for I will forgive their iniquity and their sins I will remember no more. Jeremiah 31:31-34

This wonderful promise was fulfilled by Jesus Christ whose "blood of the

The New Covenant - The Covenant of Consummation


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